In Sweden, there are 50 mosquito species on record, and we have found 33 species in the Nedre Dalälven region. The floodwater mosquito Aedes sticticus is the main nuisance species and the target for mosquito control.
Other common mosquito species, e.g. Aedes communis, Aedes punctor and Aedes cantans, belong to the group of snow-pool mosquitoes. The biology of these species resembles floodwater mosquitoes, but snow-pool mosquitoes have only one generation per year. Their eggs require freezing before hatching. The larvae hatch in spring, often in pools formed by melting snow. In Sweden, these species can be found all over the country, and can cause some nuisance but only during a limited time.
Swedish mosquito species can be sorted in 10 ecological groups, based on four characteristics: Egg laying site, overwintering stage, preferred blood meal host, and number of generations per season. Species can lay their eggs either on land or on water. Most species overwinter in the egg stage, but some overwinter in the larval stage and some as adult females. Mammals, including humans, are the preferred blood meal hosts for most species, but some prefer birds and there is one species that prefers amphibians. Finally, mosquitoes can have just one generations per year (univoltine), or many generations (multivoltine). You can read more about Swedish mosquito species in this thesis by Martina Schäfer and this publication by Lundström et al. 2013.
Female Aedes cantans, a common snow-pool mosquito species. Picture by Thomas Persson Vinnersten
Both female (to the left) och male (to the right) mosquitoes feed on nectar but only the female also needs a blood-meal to develop eggs. Here, the Aedes sticticus female took a chance on the photographer's finger. Picture by Thomas Persson Vinnersten
Female Aedes communis after a successful blood-meal. Picture by Thomas Persson Vinnersten